Monday, 11 May 2009

Identify the challenges faced by PSB in recent years (1990) and consider its position within the current Uk broadcasting market.

Public service broadcasting has seen a number of challenges in order for it to succeed in the current Uk broadcasting market, as research such as existence of new technologies, and the 1990 Broadcasting act show this. The main requirements of PSB is to keep up a high standard and wide range of programmes, which cater for a various audience such as educational, religious shows and currents news.  Public service broadcastings need to cater for everyone, as the public are the ones who are paying the licence fee. This could mean that there is too much focus on the customer satisfaction, rather than the financial success. 

There is a limit on the range of specialist interests which can be shown on tv, but there is a clear duty from the BBC and channel 4 to act in a way to guarantee a range of programming. The BBC aim to provide a broad spread of popular programming and supplement this with more varied material on BBC 2.

PSB could be unsuccessful if their ratings become the only factor concerning programme success, as it is reduce the purpose of PSB’s aim for the public benefit. Dating back to the earlier years of PSB, the BBC has struggled to survive the broadcasting market, because when Rupert Murdoch planned to expand commercial tv, the government questioned the BBC licence fee. Ministers argued that unless the corporation produced programmes that everyone watched, they could not expect universal funding. However it was once again questioned due to the Jonathan Ross/Russell Brand incident in 2008, when they made a series of prank calls to Andrew Sachs on Radio 2. Not only does this question the fee but it also questions the way the BBC is run, which makes the scandal hugely damaging, and it may have now seriously undermined the case for the license fee.

As we are gaining new technologies, Sky and digital programming have to be taken into consideration.  For example as viewers now have a variety of channels on digital tv, it allows them to view almost anything. This does then question the purpose of PSB. A 2009 survey states that 42.6 % of people decide to watch "Other Programming" on their T.V, compared to just 19.4 % for the BBC. By the time the digital switchover happens in 2012, PSB could come to an end all together.

The BBC has been criticized by some for being expansionist and exceeding its public service remit by providing content that could be provided by commercial broadcasters. They argue that the  BBC can distort the market, making it difficult for commercial providers to operate. A notable example of this is the Internet services provided by the BBC. However, those who defend the BBC suggest that the BBC needs to provide new services and entertainment, to remain relevant in the digital age. There are also questions about the public service commitments of the commercial broadcasters. All commercial channels that broadcast solely on digital platforms do not have public service requirements imposed. After digital switchover many of these channels will have the same coverage as the analogue commercial broadcasters. This has raised the question of how the analogue commercial broadcasters, with their costly public service obligations, will compete on a level playing field with such digital channels.

What is public service broadcasting?

Public Service Broadcasting (PSB)is broadcasting made, financed and controlled by the public, for the public. It is neither commercial nor state-owned, free from political interference and pressure from commercial forces. Through PSB, citizens are informed, educated and also entertained. When guaranteed with pluralism, programming diversity, editorial independence, appropriate funding, accountability and transparency, public service broadcasting can serve as a cornerstone of democracy.

UNESCO's work in the field of public service broadcasting focuses on:
enhancing the utility of PSB as an educational and cultural vehicle, especially for disadvantaged communities
promoting best PSB practices and professional standards and contributing to relevant revisions of national legislation
strengthening PSB as a gateway to information and knowledge for all
fostering the indigenous content quality and technological upgrading of public service broadcasting
encouraging innovative and creative improvements in programming to captivate larger audiences
upholding discussions between media professionals, decision-makers, and other stakeholders on major PSB-related issues.

In the future the programme will focus upon:
sustaining editorially independent broadcasters in the substantial fulfillment of their cultural, educational and social roles
contributing to capacity-building and providing training in modern broadcasting, particularly in issues related to ICTs.
Encouraging media professionals to reduce unnecessary display of violence in television programmes and to focus on delivering unbiased information to all citizens
stimulating an international debate on the significant PSB-related issues and its impact on education, culture and civil society
strengthening partnerships with professional media organizations and cretaing new alliances with major stakeholders In order to reinforce media pluralism, UNESCO promotes public service broadcasting as well as the editorial independence of the media in both the private and public sectors.

Monday, 27 April 2009

Dear Miss Andrews

I would firstly like to thank you for you letter, and would like to express how sorry we are for offending you. We in know way wanted to offened any viewers whilst showing this programme. The programme was set up to expose how the media blow things out of proportion.

However this programme did not break any of the ITC programme codes, as it was shown at 10pm, therefore suitable language was used for that particular time.

Once again we are sorry to offend you.

Yours sincerely
Mr Ofcom
Dear Ofcom
I am writing to inform you of my disgust and anger at the recent 'Brass Eye' programme; 'Peadogeddon'. I do not like the fact it took such a serious issue and mocked it which was not funny. I found the programme very offensive including the pictures of a child's face on a woman's body and the showing of a young child's enhanced breasts.

I did not find this programme humerous and do not understand why this would be shown on channel 4 as it can be very offensive to many viewers. Also the exploitation of many celebrities in this programme also caused me offence as I was aware many celebrities did not agree to the mocking of paedophilia.

I do not think this programme creates a good impression for channel 4, therefore hope you reconsider showing programmes like this again.

Yours sincerely
Gemma Andrews
Ofcom and the ITC programme code

The ITC Programme Code sets out the editorial standards which audiences are entitledto expect from commercial television services in the UK. It aims to ensure thatrequirements covering programme content which Parliament stipulated in the 1990and 1996 Broadcasting Acts are met, while allowing for and encouraging creativity,development and innovation.
To secure that every licensed service includes nothing in its programmes which offendsagainst good taste or decency or is likely to encourage or incite to crime or lead to disorder or be offensive to public feeling.
Family Viewing Policy and the Watershed - Material unsuitable for children must not be transmitted at times when large numbers of children may be expected to be watching.
The portrayal of any dangerous or harmful behaviour easily imitated by childrenshould be avoided, especially before the watershed, and must be excluded entirely inchildren’s programmes. This applies especially to the use, in a manner likely to causeserious injury, of knives and other offensive weapons, articles or substances
Requires that broadcasters take “appropriate measures to ensure that televisionbroadcasts… do not include any programmes which might seriously impair thephysical, mental or moral development of minors, in particular programmes thatinvolve pornography or gratuitous violence”.
Certification: No ‘12’ rated version should normally start before 8pm on any service.
No ‘15’ rated version should normally start before 9pm (or 8pm on premiumrate subscription services, contents permitting).
No ‘18’ rated version should start before 10pm on any service. This rule maybe relaxed if the classification was made more than 10 years ago and the film is nowclearly suitable for earlier transmission.
No ‘R18’ version should be transmitted at any time.
No version refused a BBFC certification should be transmitted at any time.
Pay Per View Services - Where security mechanisms, such as a PIN system or equivalent, satisfactorily restrictaccess to films or programmes solely to those authorised to view, watershed rules maybe waived.
Trailers and Programme Promotions - Viewers do not choose to see promotional material, so special care is required in scheduling. All trailers and promotions shown before the watershed must comply with Family Viewing Policy.
Bad language must be defensible in terms of context and scheduling with warnings where appropriate.
Careful consideration should be given to nudity before the watershed but some nuditymay be justifiable in a non-sexual and relevant context. Representations of sexual intercourse should not occur before the watershed unlessthere is a serious educational purpose.
Violence. It is reasonable for television to reflect this but it is clear that the portrayal of violence, whether physical, verbal or psychological, can upset, disturb and offend. Different types of violence are:
Offensive violence
Psychological Harm to Young and Vulnerable Viewers
Imitable violence
Cumulative effects of violence
Sexual violence
Suicide:There should be no more detailed demonstration of the means or method of suicide than is justified by the context, scheduling and likely audience for the programme.
Violence in News and other Programmes: News and current affairs programmes are subject, like any other programming, to the requirements of Family Viewing Policy.
Respect for Human Dignity and Treatment of Minorities -Viewers have a right to expect that licensed services will reflect their responsibility to preserve human dignity.
Ethnic Minorities-No programme should be transmitted which is intended to stir up racial hatred.
People with disabilities - There is a danger of offence in the use of humour based on physical, mental or sensory disability, even where no malice is present.

Tuesday, 21 April 2009

Section 1 Family Viewing Policy, Offence to Good Taste and Decency, Portrayal of Violence and Respect for Human Dignity.
General requirement - Section 1 of the Broadcasting Act 1990 requires that the ITC does all it can to secure that every licensed service includes nothing in its programmes which offends against good taste or decency or is likely to encourage or incite to crime or lead to disorder or be offensive to public feeling.

1.2 Family Viewing Policy and the Watershed- Material unsuitable for children must not be transmitted at times when large numbers of children may be expected to be watching.
However the ITC accepts that, even though some children are always likely to be present in the audience, the likelihood varies according to the time, subject matter and channel. The majority of homes do not contain children and viewers have a right to expect a range of subject matter.

1.3 Information, Advice and Warnings
Labelling, classification details and other information announcements have a helpful role in enabling viewers to make appropriate choices at all times. They are particularly important on free-to-air, general and basic tier channels

1.4 Feature Films and Other Acquired Material
Where a British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) Classification exists for the version of a film or programme proposed for transmission, it should be used as a guide to scheduling. A BBFC video classification, rather than the cinema classification, should always be the guide where one exists.

Section 2 Privacy, Gathering of Information, etc.

Article 8 Right to respect for private and family life
1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.
2. There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

The Public Domain
In considering the application of the Code, the ITC will have regard to the extent to which material has, or is about to, become available to the public.
2.2 Filming and recording of members of the public
2.2(i) In public places
When coverage is being given to events in public places, editors and producers must satisfy themselves that words spoken or action taken by individuals are sufficiently in the public domain to justify their being communicated to the television audience without express permission being sought from the individuals concerned.

2.4 Secret filming and recording
The use of hidden microphones and cameras for the filming or recording of individuals who are unaware of it is acceptable only when it is clear that the material so acquired is essential to establish the credibility and authority of a story where this cannot or is unlikely to be achieved using 'open' filming or recording techniques, and where the story itself is equally clearly of important public interest. When, in the considered judgement of the producer, such a case arises, he or she must, wherever practicable, obtain the explicit consent of the licensee's most senior programme executive or the designated alternate before such material is recorded. Consent is required again before any material obtained by secret recording is transmitted.

Section 3 Impartiality
As stated in the Foreword, the Broadcasting Act 1990 makes it the statutory duty of the ITC to draw up, and from time to time review, a code giving guidance as to the rules to be observed for the purpose of preserving due impartiality on the part of licensees as respects matters of political or industrial controversy or relating to current public policy.

3.1 Due impartiality
The Broadcasting Act requires the ITC to do all that it can to secure 'that due impartiality is preserved on the part of the person providing the service as respects matters of political or industrial controversy or relating to current public policy'.

Section 4 Party Political and Parliamentary Broadcasting
Party Political and Parliamentary Broadcasting
4.1 Party Political and Party Election Broadcasts
Section 36 of the Broadcasting Act 1990 requires the ITC to ensure that Party Political Broadcasts (PPBs) are included in the regional Channel 3 (ITV), Channel 4 and Channel 5 services. This section of the Code reflects the rules which the ITC has determined in accordance with the Act.

4.1(i) Length of broadcasts
Parties may choose a length of 2'40", 3'40" or 4'40".
4.1(ii) Frequency of broadcasts
General election broadcasts will be carried by Channel 3 (ITV), Channel 4 and Channel 5. Broadcasts for the European Parliamentary election will be carried by ITV and Channel 5.

Section 5 Terrorism, Crime, Anti-Social Behaviour
5.2 Payments
No payment should be made for an interview about his/her crimes, to a criminal whose sentence has not yet been completed

5.3 Terrorist or criminal activity
Particular care is required with a programme which carries the views of people or organisations who use or advocate the use of violence or other criminal activity within the British Isles or abroad to attain political or other ends.

Section 6 Charitable Appeals and Publicity for Charities
Section 7 Religion
Section 8 - Commercial References in Programmes Commercial References in

Tuesday, 24 March 2009

BBC history


  • The originalBritish Broadcasting company was founded in 1922 by a group of telecommunications companies&mdash animation.
  • By 1925 the BBCcould be heard throughout the UK.
  • The Company, with John Reith as general manager, became the British Broadcasting Corporation in 1927 when it was granted a Royal Charter of incorporation and ceased to be privately owned.
  • Within a year the BBC had broadcast plays, concerts and popular and classical music, talks and a variety of fprogrammes.
  • The powerful newspaper indusrty successfully kept the BBC out of the news buisness.
  • Bulletins were prepared by the news agencies and could only be broadcast after 7pm.


  • In 1932 the BBC moved into the worlds first purpose built radio production centre Broadcasting house in Portland place. ot quickly become a landmark and was described as 'a new tower of London'.